Review of the Christian Council of Zambia School Programme supported by Norwegian Church Aid

Om publikasjonen

  • Utgitt: 2003
  • Serie: --
  • Type: Gjennomganger fra organisasjoner
  • Utført av: Jan Ketil Simonsen, Chileshe L. Mulenga and Fraview Mpmbeni Zulu
  • Bestilt av: Norwegian Church Aid
  • Land: Zambia
  • Tema: Utdanning og forskning
  • Antall sider: --
  • Serienummer: --
  • ISBN: --
  • ISSN: --
  • Organisasjon: Norwegian Church Aid
  • Lokal partner: Christian Council of Zambia (CCZ)
  • Prosjektnummer: GLO-01/400-146
NB! Publikasjonen er KUN tilgjengelig elektronisk og kan ikke bestilles på papir


CCZ has been involved in the education sector as far back as the pre-colonial period. Education scholars and historians have noted that formal education in Zambia was introduced and established by Early Christian Missionaries whose original and overall objective was to develop a small cadre of literate Africans who could help with evangelization and conversion of the local Africans to Christianity.
The Education programmes then centered on provision of literacy skills, Christian values and hygiene. Various curricula was provided by various Christian Missions. The overall objective of the Early Christian Education was designed to win over converts. As a result, the different Christian Missionary Societies competed for new converts by establishing schools. Provision of Education thus became a
means of or a strategy for winning over new converts to the different Christian denominations. In consequence, there was no common curriculum and standards expected of the graduates of the early Christian Missionary Education.

Movement towards a common curricula and common educational standards had to wait until the mid 1930's when the Government became involved in the provision of education to the local population. Government involvement in the education sector was initially, however, very low key, and because the country was considered poor and the government did not want to see the emergence of literate, but
unemployed Africans. The Government thus encouraged continued involvement of the Christian Missionaries in the provision of education and concentrated its efforts on the development of a common curriculum and raising the academic standards. It should be noted that Government became particularly keen on African education only after the emergence of a sizable copper mining industry on
the Copperbelt, which brought about a need for some Africans to do some low grade clerical work, since technical and professional work was reserved for Europeans at the time.

To ensure improved academic standards and exposure of African children to a common curriculum, the Government introduced grants to Christian Missionary Schools, which adopted a common curriculum and engaged trained teachers. The need for trained teachers prompted the much smaller Protestant Christian Missions to begin cooperating with one another rather than competing particularly
with regard to the training of teachers for their schools. To that end, the Protestant Christian Missionaries under the Christian Council of Zambia established David Livingstone and Malcolm Moffat Teacher Training Colleges in Livingstone and Serenje respectively, which the much larger Roman Catholic Church established its own Charles Lwanga Teacher Training College in Monze to train teachers for its schools.


The objectives of the review of CCZ School Programme were set out in the terms of reference given to the independent Review Team by the NCA and CCZ. The objective was to assess/review the programme to make sure that CCZ and NCA were at the right track and to give recommendations for the way forward. The review reviewed the background of the new BESSIP education system in Zambia, background for CCZ's involvement in the school programme and how CCZ proceeded with this challenge. Specifically, the review team assessed the rehabilitation programme (procedures for how to select schools among the member churches, procedures on how to select between different entrepreneurs and follow up of renovations done, maintenance of buildings), Competence building of
CCZ involving planning process leading up to a strategy for Capacity Building, workshops for the capacity building and the role of partners (CCZ and partners, college and staff), the role of Government as well as levels of capacity building and the type of courses used, competence building and subjects), selection of students, issues of sustainability and use of external consultancies. Overall,
the review compared the Ministry of Education plans with those of the Christian Council of Zambia. Based on all the findings from the review, the Team of Reviewers were requested to provide conclusions, recommendations and the way forward.


The independent Reviewers were supported by the Education Secretary of the Christian Council of Zambia who helped them clarify the Terms of Reference and provided background information bon the CCZ School programme. The Education Secretary also accompanied the Review Team to the education institutions that were selected for the data collection by the Review Team. The data collection exercise was chiefly done through interviews and focus group discussions. The Review team sought to establish the processes engaged to implement the rehabilitation and the capacity building programmes. The team was further requested to establish impacts of the Capacity Building programmes.

Key findings

1. The capacity building programme had been undertaken and was based on the interest and possession of good ordinary level grades in the subject specialization. To be admitted to the Capacity Building programme, trainee teachers need at least a credit (5-6) in the preferred subject for specialization for both male and female teachers. Gender was considered in the selection criteria using different lists for male and female trainee teachers to ensure equity.

2. Trainee teachers' participation in Capacity Building (CB) Programme entails extra academic work, as it is carried with the Zambia Teacher Education Course (ZATEC) programme which prepares them for teaching the lower and Middle basic school classes. The CB classes are, nevertheless, only held when the ZATEC classes are not in session, between 14.00 and 16.00hrs to ensure effective participation of trainee teachers who may not be resident on the college campus. To effectively cover the capacity building syllabus, additional classes are held
during the holidays when the ZATEC programme is on recess.

3. The CB classes have only been made possible by the financial support of NCA and not least, the CCZ, as funds from NCA were often received late. Without financial support from NCA, however, it would not have been possible to have the capacity building programme, as there would have been no money for feeding the students during ZATEC holidays when the CB classes were held on full-time basis. The funds provided by NCA have also been critical to payment of allowances to the lecturers involved in the CB programme.

4. Capacity Building Programme has however been limited to the core basic school subjects namely: Education (Teaching Methods), English, Mathematics, Sciences, History, Geography, Civics and Religious Education. Industrial Arts, Music, and Home Economics have been excluded from the Capacity Building Classes because of the absence of the qualified lecturers who could teach at the Diploma level. In addition, there seems to be no urgency to include these subjects in the capacity building programme, because they are not considered as part of the core curriculum, as not every school is obliged to offer them.

5. There were limited numbers of qualified lecturers with relevant qualifications. The training programme was thus appreciated by the teachers, Lecturers lack confidence and competence in their delivery of the education programmes as evidenced by the complaints from the students. This situation was worsened by the lack of/inadequate teaching/learning materials. The students singled out Mathematics and Science subjects and Geography as the subjects that had hardly any teaching/learning materials. The Lecturers thus appreciated the training

6. Although Lecturers involved in capacity building programme appeared not to have seriously thought about the future of the programme compared to the students, the assessment of the staffing situation showed that Government needed to provide more teachers at the upper basics level especially for the autonomous community schools. The community schools emerged out of the policy of cost sharing, which adversely affected educational opportunities of disadvantaged children, such as orphans and vulnerable children coming from very poor families and households. The policy of providing universal basic education thus entails an increase in the number of children who would be expecting to get into the upper basic classes that already have a critical shortage of teachers. The need for more teachers capable of handling the upper basic classes cannot therefore be overemphasized.

7. With regard to the immediate future of the programme, some resources ought to be provided to the programme to ensure that at least the current crop of students complete the programme. Efforts to make the programme part of the permanent college programmes also ought to be investigated, because the programme is a response to the real need in the Zambian education sector. Any effort directed at adopting the programme as a permanent feature of the two colleges would have addressed the need for official certification. It is important to provide officially and academically valid certificates for the programme. It is
probable that some serving teachers and the trainee teachers would be willing to pay for the programme as long as the programme offers a valid certificate that would further their careers

8. The expansion of primary schools through self help initiatives did not provide appropriate housing and other support infrastructure for teachers. Failure to provide housing and other support infrastructure for teachers in schools built on self-help basis made such schools unattractive to trained and experienced teachers. In consequence, educational authorities found it difficult to provide trained teachers to such schools. The review found that schools built on self help basis and rural schools in general lacked most of the social infrastructure and
services that teachers in urban areas took for granted. In consequence, rural schools and those built on self-help basis in particular found it difficult to attract and retain trained and experienced teachers

9. CCZ has been undertaking infrastructure development and rehabilitation of schools. The rehabilitation work was affected by delayed disbursement of funding by NCA, poor quality of work due to poor workmanship due to the low levels of education of the contractors who were semi-skilled. Monitoring and communication of the rehabilitation work was considered poor. Preventive maintenance varied from school to school and should be improved. Preventive Maintenance was thus found a big challenge for education institutions.


In the light of the findings, the following recommendations were given:

1. No more resources should be allocated to the capacity Building Programme and no new trainees should be admitted before the programme is properly recognized by the Government with an official certificate of qualification being offered. However, resources should be availed to enable the current crop of trainees to complete the programme.

2. Pending on the official certification, the final abolishment of the ZATEC programme, and the speed of the implementation of a Diploma Programme for teacher training, the Capacity Building Programme should continue on a cost share basis.

3. The Colleges should better inform the local educational authorities about the programme in order to secure that the trainees in fact teach grade 8 and 9, and, thus ensuring that the programme plays its intended role without any hindrance due to ignorance of the programme.

4. The CCZ and its colleges should use the experience from the Capacity Building
programme to prepare for the implementation of the Diploma Programme that will replace the current ZATEC programme. This would include: a) Development of an adequate infrastructure for the effective science education, in particular investments in science laboratories; b) Provision of sufficient number of adequate and updated textbooks in all the subjects offered, and an assessment of the feasibility of providing computers, printers and internet connection for the purpose of easy access of teaching and learning materials, and; c) Recruitment of more lecturers trained to appropriate levels and redeployment of those without the required qualifications.

5. In order to improve preventive maintenance systems at the education institutions, CCZ should assist the schools in the development of the production units, which enable them to release financial resources for preventive maintenance and development of the infrastructures.

6. In order to avoid expensive and ad hoc solutions to major repairs and cyclical
replacements, CCZ should assist the schools in identifying the expected lifespan of
installments and structures for the purpose of long-term planning and budgeting.

7. CCZ should develop an educational policy on the many community based schools established and run by congregations of its member churches.

Comments from the organisation

As a result of the review, NCA has suspended support to the Capacity Building programme in both training colleges until such a time that the programme is officially recognised by Government and or linked to the other teacher training institutions such as University of Zambia or Chalimbana In-service Teacher Training College. The support to infrastructure rehabilitation and development shall continue as an aspect of improvement of quality of teaching and learning environment. The other future support shall address provision of educational materials, improving the capacity of CCZ as an organisation in its role as a provider of education. This implies that CCZ has to strategically position itself and acquire relevant competencies and skills as a development actor within the education sector in Zambia.

Publisert 23.01.2009
Sist oppdatert 16.02.2015