Final Evaluation – Sustainable WASH assistance to the 2010 Flood Affected Communities in Naushahro Feroze, Sindh

About the publication

  • Published: September 2017
  • Series: --
  • Type: NGO reviews
  • Carried out by: GLOW Consultant
  • Commissioned by: --
  • Country: Pakistan
  • Theme: Emergency assistance and relief
  • Pages: 35
  • Serial number: --
  • ISBN: --
  • ISSN: --
  • Organization: Kirkens Nødhjelp
  • Local partner: Research and Development Foundation (RDF)
  • Project number: 660.023
NB! The publication is ONLY available online and can not be ordered on paper.


The monsoon floods in 2010 created one of the worst humanitarian disasters in the history of
Pakistan. More than 20 million people in 84 districts of the country were affected. The massive
humanitarian needs after heavy floods posed considerable challenges for the Pakistani
government, national and international humanitarian organizations, to plan an immediate and
robust response to emergency needs of the flood affected communities. In spite of the
challenges, NCA planned to restore decent living conditions of 15,000 flood affected families
(105,000 individuals) through WASH interventions integrated with cross-cutting issues like
protection, Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Gender Mainstreaming.

The project was implemented in rural areas of district Naushahro Feroze, Sindh province. These interventions
were implemented together with the local implementing partner organization i.e. RDF.

GLOW consultants were commissioned by NCA to conduct this third party evaluation of its
Swiss Solidarities (SwS) and HEKS funded project, “Sustainable WASH assistance to the 2010
flood affected communities” implemented in Naushahro Feroze district, Sindh.

Purpose/ Objective

  • 15,000 flood affected families in district Naushahro Feroze, Sindh have dignified access to safe and sustainable WASH facilities and services in accordance with Sphere standards;
  • target population has improved capacities to better understand disaster risk management and risk reduction approaches and is better able to cope with future disasters; and
  • most vulnerable population (women, girls, minorities, elderly and people with disabilities) in the target areas access WASH services without any intimidation, cultural barrier or abuse and feel empowered with protection of their fundamental rights


The evaluation methodologies were broadly guided by the Terms of Reference and refined by the evaluation team in consultation with NCA at the inception stage. The key features of the methodology are outlined below:

  1. Secondary date review
  2. Primary data collection – Key Informant Interviews, Focus Group Discussions
  3. Date Punching, Collation and Analysis
  4. Reporting

Key Findings

Effectiveness: The project adopted an effective approach which helped ensure that all the targets set are met within the available budget and timeframe. There was direct engagement of the community in the project interventions besides engagement through Village Development Committees (VDC).

This helped improve the community ownership of the project interventions. This ownership is reflected through high percentage of WASH infrastructure functionality. Similarly, the interventions were as per community needs and had improved utilization.

The material and skills required for the interventions were generally available in the local markets. In addition, RDF have linked up some of the committees with other NGOs working in the area e.g. with Plan International and SAFWCO. These organizations have taken up WASH activities in the district including one of the UC where RDF was working previously to cater for the unmet needs.

There is improvement in the living conditions of the communities as open defecation has been reduced and access to drinking water has improved coupled with improved hygiene practices. Overall, this resulted in reduction of water borne and sanitation related diseases e.g. diarrhoea.

Crosscutting Themes: Under this project, when necessary and possible, separate women committees were formed to ensure women engagement in the project. The women actively participated in the site selection for WASH interventions. The feedback confirms that the sites selected for the water supply and sanitation facilities’ were appropriate as per privacy requirements of women. The field level teams of RDF had appropriate number of women members.

For facilitation of Persons with Disabilities (PWDs), the project provided commode chairs as per identified needs in selected households.

The project helped the communities develop disaster management plans and raised their awareness regarding early warning, evacuation routes and evacuation points etc. The WASH infrastructure provided under the project also had DRR inclusive design.

The latrines constructed were connected to septic tanks and constructed away from the water points. However, still there were around 20% of the latrines which were constructed within 10 m of hand pump. This situation arises due to the availability of limited space within the HH boundary ensuring that besides environmental consideration the latrine location is also culturally appropriate. Besides drinking, the communities use the hand pumps for bathing, and washing dishes and clothes. The communities also use water from the hand pumps for their livestock. Therefore, if there is any leakage from the septic tank e.g. due to bad quality of workmanship or due to use of faulty material then the hand pump water in closer vicinity can be affected.

Furthermore, those who used the feedback / complaint mechanism were mostly (81%) satisfied with it 

Following are the key lesson learnt and good practices of the project:

  • Beneficiary Targeting for Commode Chair: The feedback from the HHs suggests that some of them have received commode chair but they are not using the chairs as they do not have any Person with Disability (PwD) who require this support. This implies that commode chairs should be only provided to those HHs who are really in need of it.
  • Mosquito Nets: This appears to be a good value addition and a very good utilization of the leftover funding.
  • Community Participation: The project had very good engagement of the communities.
  • Separate Women Committees: This was an excellent idea as most of the times women are left out as they have social constraints of working together with male community members. This project had provided them the opportunity to form a separate women exclusive committee, if necessary.
  • Cultural and Social Constraints for Women: Though it appears that there was good women participation in the project. However, still some women in particular were left out as mainly their husbands didn’t allow them to participate in the project.
  • Replication of Latrines: It appears that communities are using the latrines provided, however, they are unable to replicate.
  • Communal Latrines: The communal latrines under this project are successfully functioning.
  • Community Feedback / Complaint Mechanism: Even though the community feedback and complaint mechanism had good coverage, there is a significant number of around 26% the HHs that are not aware of this mechanism.
  • Water Point to Septic Tank Distance: There were around 20% of the latrines which were constructed within 10 m of hand pumps.
  • Learning from the Previous Projects: It was encouraging to see latrine design was modified based on the learning from the previous project.


  1. Revised Beneficiary Targeting Approach (High Priority) It is recommended that commode chairs should be only provided to those HHs who are really in need of it e.g. HHs with very aged person and/ or a HH with such a disability who can benefit from the commode chair e.g. partially paralyzed.
  2. Engaging the Husbands (High Priority) It is recommended to develop a targeted strategy to work specifically with Husbands to sensitize them so that they can allow their wives to participate in the project activities.
  3. Replication of Latrines (High Priority) In order to make it financially feasible for the communities, it is recommended to devise a strategy to encourage communities to construct communal latrines i.e. sharing the cost of latrine with neighbouring HHs.
  4. Engage Women at Senior Management and Technical Role (Medium Priority) It is recommended that partners should be further encouraged and facilitated to engage women staff at senior management and technical levels.
  5. Beneficiary Feedback / Complaint Mechanism (High Priority) It is recommended to further strengthen the dissemination of information regarding Beneficiary Feedback / Complaint Mechanism during the project.
  6. Water Point to Septic Tank Distance (High Priority) It is recommended to ensure implementation of latrine or hand pump installation criteria so that safe distance between latrine/septic tank and hand pump is maintained.
Published 25.06.2019
Last updated 25.06.2019