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Det siste tiåret har tusenårsmålene gitt et sett av utviklingsmål for givere og mottakerland. Givere har vist engasjement for å øke bistanden og for å møte disse målene. FN-systemet, inkludert Verdensbanken, har vært en stor mottaker av denne opptrappingen i bistand. Mye av finansieringen bak denne "nye multilateralismen" har kommet i form av øremerkede midler for realisering av konkrete mål.
Øremerkede midler er i hovedsak donordrevede bidrag, og givere er ment å ha stor innflytelse i beslutninger knyttet til bruken av disse bidragene. Slik innflytelse innebærer også delt ansvar for bruk av midler og resultatoppnåelse. Donorer står overfor økende etterspørsel fra sin egen befolkning for å demonstrere ansvarlig bruk av bistandsmidlene.
- Å presentere to aktuelle studier som tar for seg bruk av midlene i det multilaterale systemet
- Å identifisere utfordringer som følger av felles styring av øremerkede midler
- Stimulere til diskusjon om donoransvar i bruk og resultatoppnåelse av øremerkede midler
Programme (in english):
- 12:00 - 12:05, Welcome Remarks - Marie M. Gaarder, Director, Evaluation Department, Norad
- 12:05 - 12:45, Activity Based Financial Flows in UN System: A Study of Select UN Organisations - Stefano Migliorisi, Lead Consultant, IDC SA , Paris
This study reviews financial flows and financial planning and budgeting processes of five UN entities that are important partners for Norway (UNDP, UNICEF, UNFPA, WFP and UNHCR).
Over the decade 2001-2009, the five agencies mobilized almost US$100 billion in resources of which nearly three quarters were non-core earmarked contributions. The increase in resources has led to increased activity levels, although for most of this period revenues have exceeded expenditures leading to a build-up of unspent funds which at the end of 2009 exceeded US$12 billion. Much of the unspent funds were from non-core earmarked contributions.
There are several reasons for the existence of unspent balances and the situation has been a subject of concern for the boards
of some agencies. The study recommends various measures for a responsible build-down of these balances. Included herein is
the need for the donors to review their earmarking practices which in addition are also perceived by some as having a negative
impact on the effectiveness of the organizations. Donors may also review their routines for monitoring the use of their earmarked
contributions. Whether the build-up of unspent balances is indicative of absorptive capacity constraints facing the UN agencies
is an issue that has not been addressed in this study and may deserve further attention. The study also sheds light on issues
related to staffing and disclosure of comparable information across time and UN agencies.
The study has been produced with assistance from Evaluation Department, Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation Norad. Its contents are the sole responsibility of the authors and in no way be taken to reflect the views of Norad.
- 12:45 - 13:15, Evidence from the World Bank’s Engagements with earmarked funding: The case of Global Funds, Chris Gerrard, Lead Evaluation Officer, Independent Evaluation Group IEG, Wash. DC.
The World Bank is currently involved in about 120 global and regional partnership programs (GRPPs) with shared governance arrangements. The Bank plays multiple roles in these programs including member of the governing body (in about 90 programs), trustee (about 70), host of the secretariat (about 50), and implementing agency (about 50). The Bank has not been a significant financial contributor to the programs.
Although the World Bank has been involved in GRPPs for 40 years, the most significant change since 2000 has been the growing number of large programs that are financing country-level investments to help countries achieve the MDGs – programs that are potentially competing with or complementing the Bank’s own lending program.
The Independent Evaluation Group has recently completed two major evaluations – on the Bank’s involvement in GRPPs and trust
funds – as well as a review of the Bank’s engagement with the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. These evaluations
raise significant issues with respect to the governance of these programs, accountability for results, evaluation, and how
the Bank engages with them.
The evaluations have been conducted by the Independent Evaluation Group, which is an independent unit in the World Bank Group that reports directly to the Board of Executive Directors. The evaluations benefitted from financial support from Evaluation Department, Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation Norad. The findings do not necessarily reflect the views of the World Bank Group Board or Management, or Norad.
- 13:15-13:45, Governance of earmarked funding: Who is accountable and to whom? Discussion and conclusions