Filtu Water and Sanitation Project- Final Evaluation Report, Ethiopia

Published: 2011 by Norwegian Lutheran Mission
Commissioned by:Norwegian Lutheran Mission
Carried out by:Matewos Tera Bussa ( external consultant), Mustefa Abdi (Early warning-Somali Region DPPB), Mohammed Ibrahim (NGO Desk-Somali Region DPPB)
Tags:Ethiopia, Water supply and sanitation

Summary

Background:
The Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus Development and Social Services Commission and Norwegian Lutheran Mission in partnership have been implementing Filtu Water and Sanitation Project (FWSP) in Filtu woreda of Somali Regional State since 2002 in three phases (2002-2005, 2006-2008 and 2009-2011). Water insecurity, poor hygienic and sanitation situation due to unavailability of facilities such as health posts were among the problems identified to be addressed by the project. The shortage of water is aggravated by recurrent droughts that has dwindled the already scare water sources and negatively impacting on the livelihood of the people. 

Purpose/objective:
The purpose of the terminal evaluation is to determine the relevance and fulfillment of objectives, efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability. Moreover, it is to provide information that is credible and useful, enabling the incorporation of lessons learned into the decision-making process of all concerned stakeholders (the concerned local government, funding agency, implementer and target beneficiaries).

Methodology:
The evaluation team used different methodologies to gather information, like: primary data and secondary data collected from different sources using structured and semi-structured questionnaires and various sources (proposals, monitoring reports, evaluation reports respectively. Moreover the team used focus group discussion, discussion with key informants, practical observation of implemented activities and final data analysis using frequency ratio to compare results and achievements.

Key findings:
Access to water is one of the major needs the communities raised at focused group discussions and individually responded during the household survey. The major source of water both for domestic and livestock watering is the rain water collected into birkas or ponds for the majority of people in Filtu woreda. The communities far from the major rivers used to collect rain water into ponds both for human and livestock consumption.
The information collected during the focused group discussion and in depth interview showed that more and more agro-pastoralists have taken up farming as coping mechanism to the recurrent droughts that caused shortage of food during the last 3 decades. Small scale irrigation farming along Genale and Dawa Rivers and planting maize and sorghum on few rainfed agricultural pocket areas has been grown for years in traditionally known as Liben  plains.

Recommendations:
The project results have contributed to the overall infrastructure, social service and capacity development of Filtu woreda in general and project target communities in particular. Water is scarce resource in most parts of Filtu woreda. Solving water problem is also solving other social and development problems. The following recommendations:
- Birka construction at Kalagur (80% completed) site near Aynle and the other at Hasan Gabeye site (25% achievement) have been languished for long already. So the investment should have quick returns in terms of benefit for the communities. Therefore, the project should complete them without further delay during the bridging phase.
- The Birka at Dipro was completed. But all the water entered has been leaked out during the Dheer season (October-November 2011). Communities were at the verge of losing hope. The project should give priority in rehabilitating this birka before the onset of the Gu rain in March 2012. 
- All Birkas and health posts should have proper design and bill of quantity. Completed projects with necessary documentation should be handed over to the government after completion.
- All birkas should be roofed phase by phase to reduce intrusion and contamination of water. Community may share cost in contributing labour as usual for this activity too.
- All brikas constructed by the project (2009-2011) and before need to be repaired, water management committees have to be strengthened. The water quality test should be done frequently. 
- In developing a new project proposal EECMY/DASSC should concentrate on certain key areas of activities which have already demonstrated results (e.g water supply (construction of birkas), hygiene and sanitation. 
- Promote conservation farming under rain fed agriculture by tapping current experiences to the project from South African or Sahelian countries.
- EECMY/DASSC and NLM should assess areas where the project could address the economic and strategic needs of the rural women in the target kebeles. Possible areas could be the provision of in kind credit and encouraging the development of savings and credit groups so that women participation in productive activities is increased.
- Livestock sector also should be supported (water for livestock, rangeland development, veterinary service, market linkage).
- Promote conservation farming under rain fed agriculture by tapping current experiences to the project from South African or Sahelian countries.
- In developing a new project proposal EECMY/DASSC should concentrate on certain key areas of activities which have already demonstrated results (e.g water supply (construction of birkas), hygiene and sanitation. 
- Livestock sector also should be supported (water for livestock, rangeland development, veterinary service, market linkage).

Comments from the organisation, if any:
The project will enter into an extension of a bridging period in 2013, as activities were not completed during the initial plan of bridging period in 2012. The partner EECMY/DASSC together with NLM is determined to address this pressing problem of water shortage and food insecurity for the population of Filtu District. The partner is preparing a new period of project (2014-2017) onwards with especial emphasis on dry land farming per the request from local stakeholders and water program.

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