Enhancing Livelihood Sustainability through Raising Community Capacity for Coastal Management (RaCCCoM) in Lamu Archipelago- Final evaluation report
|Published:||2011 by WWF-Norway|
|Carried out by:||John Kareko (Team Leader); Felicia Muriuki; Nyaga Kanyange (NatureCom Group)|
|Tags:||Kenya, Primary industry (agriculture fishing forestry)|
- Enhancing Livelihood Sustainability through Raising Community Capacity for Coastal Management (RaCCCoM) in Lamu Archipelago- Final evaluation report.pdf
The Lamu Archipelago is characterized by its extensive mangrove formation in deltas, creeks and basins of which 160 km2 is considered being in pristine or near-pristine condition. High fish production associated with the Somali current upwelling has positioned the archipelago as the most productive ecosystems in the Kenya coast. The area has breeding populations of Olive Ridley, Hawksbill and Green sea turtles as well as Dugong. It is also the most northerly coral reefs in the region, with unique sea birds like roseate terns that sometimes make up a breeding colony of more than 10,000 birds, Osprey and Pelicans. Despite these great biological and economic values, the resources are faced with numerous anthropogenic threats that require urgent remedial attention. Low community capacity which stem from poverty and weak capacity of the national and local government to carry out fisheries management or to provide basic services and economic opportunities for the residents are the main reasons for resource degradation. There are also policy conflicts within regulatory government agencies: for example between Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) and the Fisheries Department (FiD) over fishing rights in the marine reserves. There is also a general non-compliance of existing laws and regulations for both users of marine resources and the law enforcers.
Isolated people struggling to survive often find it difficult to come together in trusting relationships for the common good and, even if concerned about the erosion of resources or access to them, feel powerless to take action. This has resulted in the weakness of community organisation and acceptance of the status quo, which is more or less a de facto free-for-all usage of common resources.
The weak capacity of the communities for fisheries management contributes to the destruction of mangrove and reef habitat and species loss which in turn impacts negatively on harvests and income opportunities. This is resulting in income stress and livelihood insecurity for coastal and fisher folk.
The goal of this project was to enhance livelihood sustainability through participatory planning and management of coastal fisheries resource utilization and conservation. Its main purpose was to strengthen the capacity of communities and local authorities to conduct sustainable fisheries management within the Lamu Archipelago in Kenya.
The methodology used is comparing actual progress against targets based on the findings and factual statements identified from a review of relevant project documents i.e. In addition to this the evaluation team undertook a site visit and interviews and discussions with key stakeholders. Participation of stakeholders in the review was encouraged, reflecting opinions, expectations and vision about the contribution of the project towards the achievement of its objectives.
• Capacities of local communities to effectively participate in planning and decision making processes for sustainable management and use fisheries and coastal marine resources through co-management was enhanced: The project to a larger degree created awareness on sustainable utilization, management and conservation of fisheries and coastal marine resources. Despite the low level of literacy, local knowledge was tapped in creating awareness. This was evidenced by the ease of explanation by the communities on the need to conserve and the best practices and mitigation measures that would sustain the fisheries and coastal marine resources at large.
• Capacities of district staff strengthened to effectively manage fisheries resources in a sustainable manner, through staff training and also provision of office and field equipment.
• Community based institutions to support sustainable fisheries and coastal marine resources instituted. At least 26 Beach Management Units (BMUs) were legally established, of which, 24 have by-laws to guide their activities and operations, enabling their co-management of resources.
• One Cooperative Fisheries Management Area (CFMA) was created. The establishment of more Cooperative Fisheries Management Areas (CFMAs) would go a long way to enhance co-management and conservation of fisheries and coastal marine resources.
• Linkages amongst key agencies were strengthened. Evidence of the close working relationship amongst organizations, government department, Community Based Organizations (CBOs), Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) and communities was witnessed. However, linkages between the project and the Kenya Forest Service need to be strengthened if the mangrove forests are to be adequately protected and conserved.
• Networks were created. These create a platform for interactions amongst fishers for information dissemination and exchange. The networks also unite fishers for advocacy purposes and market access.
• Collaborative monitoring and data collection approach established. Fishers are able to capture a rich variety of fisheries data which is an important tool in informed decision making and cost-effective and efficient management of fisheries resources. However, the data collection needs to be harmonized and methods by which data collection can be effectively sustained need to be developed.
• The livelihood of fishers has been enhanced. The fish catches have increased per catch effort since the inception of the project. The mean catch per boat rose from 176.49 kg in 2007 to 210.65 kg in 2011. Impact assessment of the gear exchange programme showed that there is a decline in juvenile catches as a result of the programme (Onyango and Bwanahamadi 2011 ). This has been associated with the sound management for sustainable utilization. Cooperative societies and financial associations for saving and lending purposes have been initiated and when fully functional, the fishers stand to benefit more.
Comments from the organisation, if any:
The evaluation shows that several aspects of the implementation of the project on the ground were successful and a significant impact on livelihoods is seen as a result of the establishment of fishers savings and cooperative societies in Faza, Kiunga and Kizingitini. The evaluation also recommended continued support for three more years to consolidate on-going processes and allow overlap with incoming projects such as the recently launched World Bank funded Kenya Coast Development Project. While alternative support to the area will continue, WWF-Norway feels that priority should be on be transcribing the lessons learned from this project into policies so that local fishing communities can be increasingly mandated to co-manage their natural resources, which will ultimately benefit the state of their natural resources and increase their income. To facilitate feeding lessons into policies for changes at scale, in our new 2012-2016 strategy WWF-Norway will support the Coastal East Africa Initiative (CEA).