Thematic Evaluation of NCA’s Water and Sanitation Activities, Final report January 23, 2008
|Published:||2008 by Norwegian Church Aid|
|Commissioned by:||Norwegian Church Aid|
|Carried out by:||Anne Mossige, Scanteam - Team Leader, Rudolph-Lund, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI)|
|Tags:||Pakistan, Ethiopia, Brazil, Water supply and sanitation|
This report presents the findings of the evaluation of the Norwegian Church Aid's (NCA's) water,
sanitation and hygiene promotion (WATSAN) interventions in its three key areas of emergency
preparedness and assistance (emergency WATSAN), long term development assistance (LT WATSAN)
and advocacy. WATSAN is one of the NCA's five thematic priorities and according to NCA's 2005-
2009 Global Strategic Plan (GSP) this thematic area should be evaluated in 2007.
NCA is a diaconal non-governmental organization (NGO) commissioned by the Christian churches of
Norway. NCA is one of the largest Norwegian NGOs which are involved in development cooperation.
In 2006, NCA's total project volume for development cooperation was NOK 684 million2, of these
approximately NOK 124 million targeted WATSAN activities.
NCA has worked for about 27 years with WATSAN activities in Ethiopia
where NCA has its most important WATSAN portfolio. NCA is both an implementing
agency for some of these interventions. Other WATSAN interventions are
implemented by local partners.
The Terms of Reference gave the following main objectives for the evaluation:
i) Assess to what degree NCA is achieving its objectives for "Communities for fresh water and
safe sanitation" as outlined in NCA's Global Strategic Plan 2005-2009;
ii) Assess whether NCA's WATSAN activities are relevant and effective ways of conducting
WATSAN activities within its core areas of emergency preparedness and assistance, longterm
development assistance and advocacy;
iii) Examine the relevance and effectiveness of the organisational partnerships and cooperating
and coordinating efforts related to NCA's global WATSAN activities;
iv) Assess the impact and sustainability of NCA's WATSAN interventions and
v) Identify lessons learned and come up with specific recommendations related to the future of
NCA's WATSAN activities
The methodology for this evaluation has included the following elements:
i) Review of relevant literature, including relevant strategy, policy and thematic documents of
NCA, project documents, reports and evaluations
ii) Interviews and consultations with the NCA staff in Oslo
iii) Field visits for approximately two weeks each to Brazil, Pakistan, and Ethiopia from
September to December 2007 and a one-day interview with personnel in NCA's Nairobi
office in Kenya in December 2007:
The evaluation revealed that WATSAN interventions were relevant for the needs of rural poor who have limited access to water and are affected by droughts, conflicts or natural disasters. The provision of safe water has improved the health status of right holders and significantly reduced women workload. Improved access to clean water has also increased girls' enrollment rate in the target areas. However, hygiene promotion often remains a separate activity outside the water schemes and more attention is not given. Inadequate attention and insufficient in-house expertise in community mobilization and training, including sharing and dissemination of good practices and elaboration of guidelines and manuals was limited.
Various findings demonstrate that although NCA's WATSAN activities are consistent with many of the organizations' relatively new GSP focus areas and indicators of achievement related to WATSAN, there are rooms for improvement, in particular in relation to : (i) the need for increased advocacy work related to WATSAN at local, regional and national levels; (ii) more focus and integration of environmental issues, in particular in relation to climate change, and disaster preparedness; and (iii) more focus on indicators related participation and protection.
There is an urgent need for NCA to improve the performance and sustainability of its current and future WATSAN portfolio by focusing more on quality assurance including aspects related to: i) technical quality assurance during the project cycle; ii) M&E of the LT WATSAN portfolio; iii) sharing of experiences, lessons learned and good case studies; and iv) reporting and documentation system.
NCA and its WATSAN partners should give more attention to sustain the program's achievements the completed water schemes
NCA needs to focus more on sanitation and hygiene promotion. The EPG needs more hygiene and sanitary experts in its team.
NCA should build more in-house capacities and partners' capacities in aspects related to community mobilization, training and ownership. NCA should develop and adopt guidelines and manuals
NCA should be more determined in terms of mainstreaming gender in all its WATSAN projects. NCA should also prepare operational policies and guidelines and checklists on how to ensure women and men's participation in WATSAN project.
Comments from Norwegian Church Aid:
NCA Ethiopia will assign an experienced Sanitation and hygiene personnel to strengthen its capacity in sanitation & hygiene promotion.
NCA is working with the regional Water Bureau in developing the strategies and strengthening the grass root community capacity through training of technicians, provision of tools and spare parts as well as establishing spare parts shops.
Efforts will be further strengthened to engage in advocacy works together with partners and WATSAN forums (CRDA WSF and WASH Movement)